Adipose tissue is a rich source of stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study aimed to identify and isolate endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from human adipose tissue. Belly adipose tissues were collected from donors with consent. Stromal vascular fractions (SVFs) were extracted from adipose tissues by enzyme collagenase using commercial kits. SVFs were cultured in MSCCult medium for 24 h to obtain MSCs, then supernatant was collected and cell pellet cultured in EGM-2 medium to obtain adipose tissue EPCs (ADEPCs). ADEPCs were checked for surface marker expression of CD31 and VEGFR2, and for angiogenesis capability in vitro. The results showed that SVFs contained a pool of EPCs with strong angiogenesis potential and that adipose tissue is not only a source for MSCs but also for EPCs. Therefore, ADEPCs may a useful source of EPCs for vascular medicine.


Diseases related to ischemia have gradually increased in recent years. There have been many therapeutic efforts to treat ischemic heart diseases, including surgery (angioplasty, stents, atherectomy, etc.) to medications (beta-blockers, blood thinners, diuretics, etc.) Imai et al., 2016Kang et al., 2016Lukasiewicz, 2016von Segesser et al., 2016. Stem cell transplantation is a candidate therapy that has recently been tested to treat ischemia-related diseases, such as stroke Kasahara et al., 2016Vahidy et al., 2016Wang et al., 2016, heart infarction Henry et al., 2016Li et al., 2016Winters et al., 2016, and hindlimb ischemia Kishimoto et al., 2016Shin et al., 2016Yoshida et al., 2016. There are two kinds of stem cells mainly used in transplantation studies; these include mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). MSCs are considered to be differentiated from mesoderm; they have shown to be of benefit in transplanted patients, leading to patient improvement Lin et al., 2016Yuan et al., 2016.

EPCs are another group of important stem cells; they exhibit strong angiogenesis potential and play a key role in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis Chong et al., 2016. EPCs have been used effectively to treat hindlimb ischemia Flex et al., 2016Yu et al.,2015, stroke Bai et al., 2015Li et al., 2015, diabetic ulcer Barcelos et al., 2009Tam et al., 2015, and myocardial infarction Mehmood et al., 2015Sheng et al., 2015. However, the greatest limitation of EPC-based transplantation is the scarcity of EPCs; unlike other stem cells, EPCs exist in umbilical cord blood Finney et al., 2006Lin et al., 2011Moon et al., 2013Phuc et al., 2012, bone marrow Ii, 2010 and peripheral blood Donndorf et al., 2015, with extremely low numbers, and have slow proliferationin vitro. To overcome these limitations, our study is aimed at isolating and culturing EPCs from adipose tissue, as an alternative primary source.

Compared to adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) that have been studied longer, adipose tissue derived EPCs (ADEPCs) have only recently been investigated and reported in the literature. There has been some controversy regarding EPCs from adipose tissue. Initially, studies showed that adipose tissue could be broken down into stromal vascular fractions (SVFs); in fact, SVFs were thought to be the mononuclear cells from adipose tissue. However, it was later demonstrated that SVFs actually contained stem cells which could differentiate into various lineages, including fibroblasts, adipocytes, pericytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and myocytes Miyazaki et al., 2005Zuk et al., 2001. Recently, cultured SVFs was reported to contain adipose-derived stem/progenitor cells (ASCs or ADSCs) or adipose- derived regenerative cells (ADRCs). ADSCs have been proven to be MSCs, or to exhibit the minimal criteria for MSC lineage, as suggested by Domicini et al. Dominici et al., 2006.

To obtain EPCs for therapy, it has been reported that ADSCs can differentiate into ECs or EPCs Miranville et al., 2004Planat-Benard et al., 2004Sumi et al., 2007. However, some studies have rejected this notion, and refute that ADSCs can differentiate into ECs/EPCs Kondo et al., 2009. Several recent studies have indicated that adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) can differentiate into pericytes in vitroand in vivo Amos et al., 2008Traktuev et al., 2008Zannettino et al., 2008. However, transplantation of ADSCs, as well as SVFs, have demonstrated neoangiogenesis and vasculogenesis in vivoGuo et al., 2016Zhong et al., 2016. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that ADSCs do not differentiate into EPCs, but that SVFs may contain an EPC population.

Materials and methods

Adipose tissue collection

All patients enrolled in this study were required to sign a consent form. All procedures used in the study were approved by the ethical committee of the hospital. Three adipose tissue samples were used in this study. Approximately 50–100 mL of lipoaspirate was collected from each patient in two 50 mL sterile syringes.

Isolation of SVFs from adipose tissue

SVFs from the adipose tissue (lipoaspirate) in syringes were collected using the SVF Rapid Kit (RegenMedLab, HCM, Vietnam). The extraction procedure was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, two syringes of aspirated fat were connected with 2 syringes of the Rapid kit. The syringes were put into an extraction machine with the following parameters: time: 30 min, speed: 1 cycle/min. The lysed fat was then centrifuged at 1000 g for 5 min at room temperature to collect SVFs. Finally, SVFs were washed twice with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The pellet was resuspended in PBS for determination of cell quantity and viability using an automatic cell counter (NucleoCounter; Chemometec, Denmark).

Primary culture

Three SVF samples were used to isolate EPCs by a 2- step procedure. In the first step, SVF samples were cultured in MSCCult medium (RegenMed Lab, HCM, Vietnam) containing DMEM/F12 supplemented with antibiotic-antimycotic, epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), with 10% FBS (Thermo-Scientific, MA). The cells were plated at 5 × 104 cells/mL in T-75 flasks (SPL, Korea) and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 to collect rapidly adherent cells. After 48 h, the supernatant was collected. In the second step, the supernatant was centrifuged at 1000 g for 5 min to harvest the cell pellet. The pellet was resuspended in EGM-2 solution from the EGM-2 BulletKit (Lonza, Basel, Switzerland); 3 mL of EGM-2 was used per 3 mL of original supernatant. The suspension was then incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 to collect slowly adherent cells, which were considered to be adipose tissue derived endothelial progenitor cells (ADEPCs). After 7 d, the cell medium was replaced with fresh medium, and continually replaced every subsequent 3 d until the cells reached 70–80% confluence. At that point, the cells were subcultured by TrypLe Express (Thermo-Scientific, MA).

Flow cytometry

Cell markers were analyzed following a previously published protocol. Briefly, cells were washed twice in PBS containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA). The cells were then stained with anti-CD31-FITC and antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (anti- VEGFR2)-PE (both purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Canada) for ADEPCs, and anti-CD44- PE, anti-CD73-PE, and anti-CD90-FITC (all purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology) for MSCs. Stained cells were analyzed by a FACSCalibur flow cytometer (BD Biosciences). Isotype controls were used in all analyses.

Capillary-like structure formation assay

Capillary-like structure formation was done by an angiogenesis starter kit (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA). Briefly, ADEPCs were seeded on 6-well flat-bottom plates coated with Geltrex Matrix and Medium 200. Eighteen hours after incubation, capillary-like structures were observed under an Axiovert microscope (Carl-Zeiss, Germany).

Statistical analysis

Significant differences between mean values were assessed by t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6 software.

Expression of CD31 and VEGFR2

Expression of CD31 and VEGFR2 on the surface of EPC candidates were evaluated by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The results showed that the majority of AD-EPCs showed high expression of CD31 and VEGFR2, with 93.31±9.11% and 98.91±1.14% of the cells staining positive, respectively ( Figure 2F ). ADEPC marker expression was also confirmed by immunocytochemistry; almost all of the ADEPCs were positive for CD31 and VEGFR2 ( Figure 2A-D ). The double positive CD31+VEGFR2+ population was also observed ( Figure 2E ).

Figure 2. EPC candidates were positive with CD31 and VEGFR2


SVF extraction

Three samples of adipose tissue were used to isolate SVFs. The results showed that adipose tissues contained 1.31±0.27 106 SVF cells with percent viability of 92.17±5.81%.

SVF culture and proliferation

In the first step, SVFs were cultured in DMEM/F12 medium for 48 h to isolate MSCs. The culture supernatant was collected and placed in new flasks with fresh medium (containing EGM-2). After 48 h of culture, adherent cells appeared in the flasks. After 5 d, these cells rapidly proliferated and formed colonies. Under the microscope, these colonies (or EPC candidates) exhibited the characteristic shape of EPCs ( Figure 1 ).

Figure 1. EPC isolation from adipose tissue

Capillary-like network formation in vitro

ADEPCs were assessed for in vitro capillary formation in Matrigel. As shown in Figure 3 , ADEPCs were capable of forming capillaries ( Figure 3A,D ), similar to human vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) ( Figure 3B,E ), while MSCs derived from the same samples of SVFs could not form capillaries ( Figure 3C,F ).

Figure 3. Capillary-like network formation in vitro of EPC candidates

Isolation of both MSCs and EPCs from same adipose tissue samples

We were able to isolate both MSCs (ADSCs) and ADEPCs from the same adipose tissues. In the first culture (first 24 h), the adherent cells exhibited the characteristic MSC phenotypes. The cells adhered tothe flask surface with fibroblast-like shape ( Figure 4A ). They also expressed particular MSC markers, such as CD44 (98.89±3.12%), CD73 (98.78±1.21%) and CD90 (100%) ( Figure 4B ). Although they failed to form capillary-like network formation in vitro, the cells could differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts and adipocytes ( Figure 4C ). In fact, after induction with an osteoblast-inducing medium, the cells stained positive with alizarin red staining. Moreover, after induction by chondrogenesis, MSCs stained positive with Safranin O staining; after induction by adipogenesis, MSCs were positive with Oil Red staining.

Figure 4. MSCs phenotype and characterization


EPCs are essential stem cells in regenerative medicine as well as vascular medicine. This study evaluated adipose tissue as a potential new source for EPCs. The ADEPCs exhibited phenotypic and functional markers of EPCs. It has been noted in some previous studies that EPCs are detected, and only at low numbers, in umbilical cord blood Finney et al., 2006Lin et al., 2011Moon et al., 2013Phuc et al., 2012, bone marrow Ii, 2010 and peripheral blood Donndorf et al., 2015. These EPCs have been successfully applied to treat ischemia-related diseases, such as hindlimb ischemia Flex et al., 2016Yu et al., 2015, stroke Bai et al., 2015Li et al., 2015, diabetic ulcer Barcelos et al., 2009Tam et al., 2015, and myocardial infarction Mehmood et al.,2015Sheng et al., 2015.

Although the EPCs from our study were obtained from a different source (adipose tissue), they exhibited several common properties of EPCs, including expression of CD31 and VEGFR2, and capillary-like network formation in vitroFinney et al., 2006Ii,2010Lin et al., 2011Moon et al., 2013Phuc et al., 2012. Expression of CD31 and VEGFR2 was strong after the 3rd cell passage. The cells demonstrated the ability to form new blood vessels in vitro, similar to HUVECs.

The isolation of EPCs derived from adipose tissue has been suggested by Planat-Benard et al. Planat-Benard et al., 2004. Planat-Benard’s procedure was not different from standard MSC isolation procedure; ADEPCs were isolated and proliferated in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% NCS. Mouse ADEPCs have been isolated and evaluated in recent years by Zhou et al Zhou et al., 2015. Similar to Planat-Benard et al., Zhou et al. also used DMEM medium with 10% FBS, without any growth factors or cytokines. Both of these procedures are similar to MSC isolation that has been published in the literature Cheng et al., 2011Devitt et al., 2015Francis et al.,2010.

In 2014, Navarro et al. showed that there was a cell population in SVFs exhibiting endothelial cell properties Navarro et al., 2014. The fraction of CD14+ cells contained cells that co-expressed CD45 with some progenitor markers, such as VEGFR2 (KDR), VEGFR1 (Flt1), and Tie2 Navarro et al., 2014. These cells also produced VEGF and bFGF at high levels, compared to MSCs Navarro et al., 2014.

Our study can be considered as the first study to use direct cell culture procedures to isolate EPCs from adipose tissue. The principle for EPC isolation from SVFs is similar to our previously published study on isolation of EPCs from umbilical cord blood by cell culture Phuc et al., 2012. Based on the different adherent capacities of MSCs (plastic rapidly-adherent cells) and EPCs (slowly-adherent), we successfully isolated MSCs and EPCs from the same samples of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells. Similarly, in this study, the slowly adherent cell population from SVFs were found to be EPCs, and the rapidly adherent cells were MSCs.


Previous studies have shown that EPCs are usually isolated from umbilical cord blood, bone marrow or peripheral blood, in limited quantity. This study suggested that a new source of EPCs could be derived from adipose tissue. The ADEPCs in our study expressed endothelial cell markers, such as CD31 and VEGFR2, and formed blood vessels in vitro, similar to HUVECs. We demonstrated that EPCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue by selecting the slowly adherent cell population from SVFs. These findings demonstrate the potential and rationale for the use of adipose tissue for EPC isolation to treat vascular diseases.


ADEPCs: Adipose tissue-derived endothelial progenitor cells

EPCs: Endothelial progenitor cells

HUVEC: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells

MSCs: Mesenchymal stem cells; SVFs: Stromal vascular fraction

VEGFR2: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2


  1. P.J. Amos, H. Shang, A.M. Bailey, A. Taylor, A.J. Katz, S.M. Peirce. IFATS collection: The role of human adipose-derived stromal cells in inflammatory microvascular remodeling and evidence of a perivascular phenotype. Stem Cells. 2008; 26 : 2682-2690 .
  2. Y.Y. Bai, L. Wang, X.G. Peng, Y.C. Wang, D. Chang, S. Zheng, J. Ding, C. Li, S. Ju. Non-invasive monitoring of transplanted endothelial progenitor cells in diabetic ischemic stroke models. Biomaterials. 2015; 40 : 43-50 .
  3. L.S. Barcelos, C. Duplaa, N. Krankel, G. Graiani, G. Invernici, R. Katare, M. Siragusa, M. Meloni, I. Campesi, M. Monica. Human CD133 + progenitor cells promote the healing of diabetic ischemic ulcers by paracrine stimulation of angiogenesis and activation of Wnt signaling. Circ Res. 2009; 104 : 1095-1102 .
  4. K.-H. Cheng, T.-L. Kuo, K.-K. Kuo, C.-C. Hsiao. Human adipose-derived stem cells: Isolation, characterization and current application in regeneration medicine. Genomic. 2011; Medicine : Biomarkers, and Health Sciences 3, 53-62 .
  5. M.S. Chong, W.K. Ng, J.K. Chan. Concise Review: Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Regenerative Medicine: Applications and Challenges. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016; 5 : 530-538 .
  6. S.M. Devitt, C.M. Carter, R. Dierov, S. Weiss, R.P. Gersch, I. Percec. Successful isolation of viable adiposederived stem cells from human adipose tissue subject to long-term cryopreservation: positive implications for adult stem cell-based therapeutics in patients of advanced age. Stem Cells Int. 2015; 2015 : 146421 .
  7. M. Dominici, K. Le Blanc, I. Mueller, I. Slaper-Cortenbach, F. Marini, D. Krause, R. Deans, A. Keating, D. Prockop, E. Horwitz. Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement. Cytotherapy. 2006; 8 : 315-317 .
  8. P. Donndorf, L. Lube, C. Lux, A. Skorska, G. Steinhoff, K. Kraft. Mobilization of Bone Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells following Finnish Sauna: A Pilot Study. Forsch Komplementmed. 2015; 22 : 246-250 .
  9. M.R. Finney, N.J. Greco, S.E. Haynesworth, J.M. Martin, D.P. Hedrick, J.Z. Swan, D.G. Winter, S. Kadereit, M.E. Joseph, P. Fu. Direct comparison of umbilical cord blood versus bone marrow-derived endothelial precursor cells in mediating neovascularization in response to vascular ischemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006; 12 : 585-593 .
  10. A. Flex, F. Biscetti, M.G. Iachininoto, E.R. Nuzzolo, N. Orlando, S. Capodimonti, F. Angelini, C.G. Valentini, M. Bianchi, L.M. Larocca. Human cord blood endothelial progenitors promote post-ischemic angiogenesis in immunocompetent mouse model. Thromb Res. 2016; 141 : 106-111 .
  11. M.P. Francis, P.C. Sachs, L.W. Elmore, S. E. Holt. Isolating adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from lipoaspirate blood and saline fraction. Organogenesis. 2010; 6 : 11-14 .
  12. L.Z. Guo, T.H. Kim, S. Han, S.W. Kim. Angio- Vasculogenic Properties of Endothelial-Induced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Human Adipose Tissue. Circ J. 2016; 80 : 998-1007 .
  13. T.D. Henry, G.L. Schaer, J.H. Traverse, T.J. Povisc, C. Davidson, J.S. Lee, M.A. Costa, T. Bass, F. Mendelsohn, F.D. Fortuin. Autologous CD34+ Cell Therapy for Refractory Angina: 2 year Outcomes from the ACT34-CMI Study. Cell Transplant. 2016 .
  14. M. Ii. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells: isolation and characterization for myocardial repair. Methods Mol Biol. 2010; 660 : 9-27 .
  15. H. Imai, K. Watanabe, T. Miyagishima, Y. Yoshimoto, T. Kin, H. Nakatomi, N. Saito. The outcome of a surgical protocol based on ischemia overprotection in large and giant aneurysms of the anterior cerebral circulation. Neurosurg Rev. 2016 .
  16. W.Y. Kang, U. Campia, H. Ota, R.J. Didier, S.I. Negi, S. Kiramijyan, E. Koifman, N.C. Baker, M.A. Magalhaes, M.J. Lipinski. Vascular access in critical limb ischemia. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2016; 17 : 190-198 .
  17. Y. Kasahara, K. Yamahara, T. Soma, D.M. Stern, T. Nakagomi, T. Matsuyama, A. Taguchi. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells: intra-arterial versus intravenous administration impacts stroke outcomes in a murine model. Transl Res. 2016 .
  18. S. Kishimoto, K.I. Inoue, S. Nakamura, H. Hattori, M. Ishihara, M. Sakuma, S. Toyoda, H. Iwaguro, I. Taguchi, T. Inoue. Low-molecular weight heparin protamine complex augmented the potential of adipose-derived stromal cells to ameliorate limb ischemia. Atherosclerosis. 2016; 249 : 132-139 .
  19. K. Kondo, S. Shintani, R. Shibata, H. Murakami, R. Murakami, M. Imaizumi, Y. Kitagawa, T. Murohara. Implantation of adipose-derived regenerative cells enhances ischemia-induced angiogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009; 29 : 61-66 .
  20. G.H. Li, B. Luo, Y.X. Lv, F. Zheng, L. Wang, M.X. Wei, X.Y. Li, L. Zhang, J.N. Wang, S.Y. Chen. Dual effects of VEGF-B on activating cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem cells to protect the heart against short- and long-term ischemiareperfusion injury. J Transl Med. 2016; 14 : 116 .
  21. Y.F. Li, L.N. Ren, G. Guo, L.A. Cannella, V. Chernaya, S. Samuel, S.X. Liu, H. Wang, X.F. Yang. Endothelial progenitor cells in ischemic stroke: an exploration from hypothesis to therapy. J Hematol Oncol. 2015; 8 : 33 .
  22. K.C. Lin, H.K. Yip, P.L. Shao, S.C. Wu, K.H. Chen, Y.T. Chen, C.C. Yang, C.K. Sun, G.S. Kao, S.Y. Chen. Combination of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) and ADMSC-derived exosomes for protecting kidney from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. Int J Cardiol. 2016; 216 : 173-185 .
  23. R.Z. Lin, A. Dreyzin, K. Aamodt, A.C. Dudley, J.M. Melero-Martin. Functional endothelial progenitor cells from cryopreserved umbilical cord blood. Cell Transplant. 2011; 20 : 515-522 .
  24. A. Lukasiewicz. Treatment of acute lower limb ischaemia. Vasa. 2016; 45 : 213-221 .
  25. A. Mehmood, M. Ali, S.N. Khan, S. Riazuddin. Diazoxide preconditioning of endothelial progenitor cells improves their ability to repair the infarcted myocardium. Cell Biol Int. 2015; 39 : 1251-1263 .
  26. A. Miranville, C. Heeschen, C. Sengenes, C.A. Curat, R. Busse, A. Bouloumie. Improvement of postnatal neovascularization by human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Circulation. 2004; 110 : 349-355 .
  27. T. Miyazaki, Y. Kitagawa, K. Toriyama, M. Kobori, S. Torii. Isolation of two human fibroblastic cell populations with multiple but distinct potential of mesenchymal differentiation by ceiling culture of mature fat cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Differentiation. 2005; 73 : 69-78 .
  28. S.H. Moon, S.M. Kim, S.J. Park, H. Kim, D. Bae, Y.S. Choi, H.M. Chung. Development of a xeno-free autologous culture system for endothelial progenitor cells derived from human umbilical cord blood. PLoS One. 2013; 8 : e75224 .
  29. A. Navarro, S. Marin, N. Riol, F. Carbonell-Uberos, M.D. Minana. Human adipose tissue-resident monocytes exhibit an endothelial-like phenotype and display angiogenic properties. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014; 5 : 50 .
  30. P.V. Phuc, V.B. Ngoc, D.H. Lam, N.T. Tam, P.Q. Viet, P.K. Ngoc. Isolation of three important types of stem cells from the same samples of banked umbilical cord blood. Cell and Tissue Banking. 2012; 13 : 341-351 .
  31. V. Planat-Benard, J.S. Silvestre, B. Cousin, M. Andre, M. Nibbelink, R. Tamarat, M. Clergue, C. Manneville, C. Saillan- Barreau, M. Duriez. Plasticity of human adipose lineage cells toward endothelial cells: physiological and therapeutic perspectives. Circulation. 2004; 109 : 656-663 .
  32. Z.L. Sheng, Y.Y. Yao, Y.F. Li, C. Fu, G.S. Ma. Transplantation of bradykinin-preconditioned human endothelial progenitor cells improves cardiac function via enhanced Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and angiogenesis. Am J Transl Res. 2015; 7 : 1214-1226 .
  33. J.Y. Shin, J.K. Yoon, M.K. Noh, S.H. Bhang, B.S. Kim. Enhancing Therapeutic Efficacy and Reducing Cell Dosage in Stem Cell Transplantation Therapy for Ischemic Limb Diseases by Modifying the Cell Injection Site. Tissue Eng Part A. 2016; 22 : 349-362 .
  34. M. Sumi, M. Sata, N. Toya, K. Yanaga, T. Ohki, R. Nagai. Transplantation of adipose stromal cells, but not mature adipocytes, augments ischemia-induced angiogenesis. Life Sci. 2007; 80 : 559-565 .
  35. J.C. Tam, C.H. Ko, K.M. Lau, M.H. To, H.F. Kwok, W.S. Siu, C.P. Lau, W.Y. Chan, P.C. Leung, K.P. Fung. Enumeration and functional investigation of endothelial progenitor cells in neovascularization of diabetic foot ulcer rats with a Chinese 2-herb formula. J Diabetes. 2015; 7 : 718-728 .
  36. D.O. Traktuev, S. Merfeld-Clauss, J. Li, M. Kolonin, W. Arap, R. Pasqualini, B.H. Johnstone, K.L. March. A population of multipotent CD34-positive adipose stromal cells share pericyte and mesenchymal surface markers, reside in a periendothelial location, and stabilize endothelial networks. Circ Res. 2008; 102 : 77-85 .
  37. F.S. Vahidy, M.H. Rahbar, H. Zhu, P.J. Rowan, A.B. Bambhroliya, S.I. Savitz. Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis of Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cells in Animal Models of Ischemic Stroke. Stroke. 2016 .
  38. L. Segesser, S. Marinakis, D. Berdajs, E. Ferrari, M. Wilhelm, F. Maisano. Prevention and therapy of leg ischaemia in extracorporeal life support and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with peripheral cannulation. Swiss Med Wkly. 2016; 146 : w14304 .
  39. Q. Wang, F. Duan, M.X. Wang, X.D. Wang, P. Liu, L.Z. Ma. Effect of stem cell-based therapy for ischemic stroke treatment: A meta-analysis. Clin Neurol. 2016; Neurosurg146 : 1-11 .
  40. A.A. Winters, S. Bou-Ghannam, H. Thorp, J.A. Hawayek, D.L. Atkinson, C.E. Bartlett, F.J. Silva, E.W. Hsu, A.P. Moreno, D.A. Grainger. Evaluation of Multiple Biological Therapies for Ischemic Cardiac Disease. Cell Transplant. 2016 .
  41. S. Yoshida, H. Yoshimoto, A. Hirano, S. Akita. Wound Healing and Angiogenesis through Combined Use of a Vascularized Tissue Flap and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in a Rat Hindlimb Irradiated Ischemia Model. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016; 137 : 1486-1497 .
  42. P. Yu, Q. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhang, K. Seldeen, M. Pang. Pro-angiogenic efficacy of transplanting endothelial progenitor cells for treating hindlimb ischemia in hyperglycemic rabbits. J Diabetes Complications. 2015; 29 : 13-19 .
  43. H. Yuan, J. Guan, J. Zhang, R. Zhang, M. Li. Exosomes secreted by human urine-derived stem cells accelerate skin wound healing by promoting angiogenesis in rat. Cell Biol Int. 2016 .
  44. A.C. Zannettino, S. Paton, A. Arthur, F. Khor, S. Itescu, J.M. Gimble, S. Gronthos. Multipotential human adipose-derived stromal stem cells exhibit a perivascular phenotype in vitro and in vivo. J Cell Physiol. 2008; 214 : 413-421 .
  45. Z. Zhong, H. Gu, J. Peng, W. Wang, B.H. Johnstone, K.L. March, M.R. Farlow, Y. Du. GDNF secreted from adipose-derived stem cells stimulates VEGF-independent angiogenesis. Oncotarget. 2016 .
  46. L. Zhou, J. Xia, X. Qiu, P. Wang, R. Jia, Y. Chen, B. Yang, Y. Dai. In Vitro Evaluation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells from Adipose Tissue as Potential Angiogenic Cell Sources for Bladder Angiogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10 : e0117644 .
  47. P.A. Zuk, M. Zhu, H. Mizuno, J. Huang, J.W. Futrell, A.J. Katz, P. Benhaim, H.P. Lorenz, M.H. Hedrick. Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cellbased therapies. Tissue Eng. 2001; 7 : 211-228 .